Packing activities: the first step in transport safety
The packing activity, understood as arranging and fixing the material inside a box, a cage or on a pallet, is of fundamental importance to ensure safety in the subsequent transport phase. A weak and not rigid pallet, in which the load is not firmly secured to the base, is difficult to secure once loaded. This compromises the action of the lashing devices, such as web lashings, or of the other securing devices used.
The following video shows just this condition:
As it can be observed in the first part of the video, the action of the web lashings and the anti-slip material interposed between the vehicle floor and the pallet, is compromised by a poor securing of the drums to the pallet. The second test, carried out by interposing anti-slip material between the pallet and the drums, provides satisfactory results.
It is concluded that the cargo securing issue begins well before the actual loading phase on the transport unit. In fact, the packing activity is of fundamental importance, understood as preparing the packaging and setting up the pallet.
Test methods for load units
To verify the rigidity and stability of the load unit, methods have been developed to test the strength of the pallet. This allows you to simulate behavior during any emergency maneuvers that may occur during transport.
There are three methods used for this:
- Tilt test of the load unit on a platform. The static stress type generated simulates the accelerations that develop during transport, in accordance with the provisions of the EN 12195-1 standard. An inclination of the platform equal to 26.6 ° generates a force on the load corresponding to an acceleration equal to 0.5 g (as in the case of acceleration and cornering). A lean angle of 38.7 °, on the other hand, corresponds to an acceleration of 0.8 g (as in the case of braking).
- Dynamic test, applying impulsive stresses to the load unit. The test is described in the EUMOS 40509 standard.
- Dynamic test on track. The laden vehicle travels along an “S” -shaped section, such as to develop an acceleration equal to 0.5g, which according to the EN 12195-1 standard corresponds to the value that can be reached during acceleration and cornering. An emergency braking is therefore performed which develops an acceleration equal to 0.8g, as required by the EN 12195-1 standard. The details for carrying out the test are contained in the EN 12642 standard.
How to pack?
Given the multiplicity of cases that may arise, it is impossible to provide universal and exhaustive indications for a good preparation of the load. Each type of load requires an analysis based on the shape, the mass, the way it will be loaded and fixed on board the transport unit.
However, there are some general indications, to be used as a basis for carrying out any more in-depth analyzes if necessary.
Therefore, please refer to the dedicated pages where the discussion for various types of goods is deepened:
The pallet: this page provides the provisions relating to the correct use of the pallet, a tool widely used for the consolidation of packages and the creation of overpacks.
Non-palletized cargo: this page analyzes those loads that cannot be shipped on pallets due to their size and shape. Often in these cases the masses involved are very high. It is therefore of fundamental importance to take care of the packaging and composition of the load unit in order to guarantee safety in the subsequent transport phase.