Cargo securing for dangerous goods
Depending on the degree of danger of the goods, in certain cases appropriate precautions are necessary in the arrangement of the goods. In some cases there are specific provisions in the choice of the transport unit.
Loading provisions for road transport
The ADR Agreement, starting from the 2013 edition, introduced the EN 12195-1 standard as a standard for securing the cargo, anticipating the provisions of the Directive 2014/47/EU. In fact, chapter 184.108.40.206 states that the provisions relating to handling and stowage are deemed to be complied with if is secured in accordance with standard EN 12195-1 standard.
For the mixed loading prohibition, chapter 7.5.2 ADR contains a specific table. With this it can be determined whether dangerous goods of different classes can be loaded on board the same transport unit. In general, the mixed loading of explosive goods, or with a subsidiary risk of explosiveness, with other dangerous goods is prohibited. Exceptions to this rule are the explosive substances of division 1.4, compatibility group S, which can instead be carried together with other dangerous goods.
Special provisions for certain classes
For some dangerous goods specific provisions for carriage apply, for example:
- Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases, class 4.3, and organic peroxides, class 5.2, shall be loaded on to closed or sheeted vehicles or into closed or sheeted containers according to special provision V1. Loading in open vehicles is not allowed.
- Toxic substances must be suitably segregated from any foodstuffs present on board, as required by special provision CV28.
- The gas cylinders must be arranged in the transport unit with a particular orientation, as required by special provision CV10. Under certain circumstances, cylinders must be transported lying down, with the valves facing the central part of the load compartment.
- For the transport of oxidizing substances, class 5.1, easily flammable materials for stowage shall not be used.
Finally, it is necessary to check that the transport unit shows the correct danger signal externally. This consists of warning labels and marks, and orange-coloured plates.
Loading provisions for sea carriage
For sea carriage, particular attention is required to the segregation of the goods. The basic principle is quite simple: dangerous goods which in case of contact could give rise to a dangerous reaction, shall be adequately separated. For example, it is not possible to load acid substances with alkalis inside the same container.
Before loading, it is necessary to check the compatibility of the goods based on the segregation table in 7.2.4 of the IMDG Code. Furthermore, additional segregation provisions required for specific goods must be considered, according to the segregation codes in 7.2.8.
Even for sea carriage, the transport unit shall bear externally with the danger marks and plates relevant to the dangerous goods contained.
For loading arrangement IMDG Code refers to the volume IMO/ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code).